Metabolism - This is a combination of chemical reactions that occur in the body, which ensure its vital activity. These processes regulate reproduction, growth, response to external factors, the ability to preserve the integrity of the body.
Metabolism It is carried out between cells and intercellular fluid, the unchanged composition of which is ensured by blood circulation. During the metabolic reaction, there is a continuous process of transformation of one substance into another, and this reaction is ensured by enzymes. They are able to work as biological catalysts, as well as deactivate chemical reactions. On the other hand, an important task of enzymes is to regulate metabolic pathways (i.e. a series of chemical reactions) in response to signals from other cells and a change in external conditions.
The suitability of a particular molecule for use as an energy source is determined by the characteristics of the body's metabolism. The metabolic rate also affects the body's need for food.
The main components of metabolism and metabolic pathways are similar for many creatures, and therefore, scientists conclude that the origin of living organisms is the same. Carboxylic acids, for example, which are an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, are present in all beings. Such similarities in the process of metabolism are most likely associated with the efficiency of metabolic pathways and with their appearance in evolution at the earliest stages.
Substances of organic origin, which are part of all organisms, are represented fats, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and amino acids mostly. To ensure vital activity, these molecules play the most important role, therefore, metabolic reactions are aimed at creating these molecules during the construction of cells, as well as for their destruction, which will allow the use of released energy.
The level of metabolism is largely associated with the physique of a person. Net body weight without fat and metabolic rate are directly dependent. Considering the fact that in men the percentage ratio of fat with body weight is lower than that of women, we can confidently say that the metabolic rate in the male body is on average 15-20% higher. Hormones, heredity, level of physical activity also play an important role in the speed of this process.
The most active metabolic process takes place in the muscles, brain tissue, abdominal organs. This is due to the fact that these processes are the most important for life support than, for example, the processes that occur in the subcutaneous fat.
The main factors affecting the metabolism include the following:
- Food intake and metabolism are directly dependent on each other: the lower the first indicator, the lower the second. At the same time, an increase in the amount of food consumed can lead to both a slowdown and an acceleration of metabolism. In the event that an excessive intake of food leads to the appearance of excess fat, a slowdown in metabolism occurs, but on the other hand, its possible acceleration may be the result of increased stress on the body's organs.
- Food qualityand also affects the level of metabolism. High-quality, protein-rich food speeds up the process, while carbohydrates can lower it.
- Physical exercise in 10-15 minutes they are able to accelerate the metabolism. The more the body is accustomed to physical activity, the less metabolism accelerates after them, so the change in this process in athletes after training is insignificant.
Metabolic disorders can lead to serious disorders in the body. Problems of the digestive, cardiovascular and other systems often start with this disorder. In this case, an endocrinologist or a nutritionist can help resolve the situation.
For several centuries, scientists have tried to unravel the essence of metabolism. The first studies were aimed at studying the metabolism of the body as a whole, while now the emphasis is on individual reactions. The first concepts of metabolism were found in scientific works of the 13th century, and the results of the first experiments related to metabolism were published only in the 17th century. Early writings describe how the “living force” controls the chemical reactions in the body.