Diets

Diet 0 table

General rules

Indications for surgical treatment peptic ulcer may be: ulcer perforation, ulcerative bleeding, pyloroduodenal stenosis, malignancy, penetration, as well as the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy. Any operation is, first of all, stress for the body and the presence of a wound surface. The timing of restoration of organ function will depend on how large the wound surface and the volume of operation, in this case on the stomach. When the body experiences stress, protein of the muscles, muscles and internal organs is used as protein.

During the restoration of damaged organs and tissues, neoplasm of cells and new blood vessels is activated, a large number of synthesized collagen. It is the main component of scarring and amino acids are used to build it. During this period, it is necessary, on the one hand, to spare the operated organ, and on the other, to ensure an increased consumption of proteins (they are introduced gradually), vitamins and minerals in the patient’s diet. Typically, after surgery, specialized foods are connected - sources of protein, maltodextrin, lecithinpolyunsaturated fatty acids, triglycerides, minerals, vitamins. All of them are characterized by a high level of digestibility and bioavailability.

Then they switch to regular food nutrition, and a feature of diet therapy for surgical patients is a balanced and nutritious diet with a gradual increase in the load on the gastrointestinal tract and the prevention of starvation of the body.

Zero surgical diets that begin the eating process of the operated patients are sequentially assigned Tables 0A, 0B, 0V. They gradually increase the amount of protein, the amount of servings and the list of dishes. The gastrointestinal tract in a training mode is brought to nutrition by a specialized Diet number 1 (surgical), a stay on which is recommended for up to 2-4 months.

Proper nutrition in the postoperative period includes:

  • organ sparing after surgery;
  • normalization of metabolism and rapid recovery of the body;
  • increase the body's resistance; to
  • early healing of the wound;
  • fractional food intake up to 6 times a day.

These diets provide maximum unloading of the digestive organs, their sparing, and also prevent bloating. This food can be prescribed to patients when eating ordinary food is difficult or for some reason impossible. In general, surgical diets are prescribed up to 6-7 days.

Diet 0A includes only liquid and jelly-like dishes in an amount of 100-200 ml per reception, the amount of salt is sharply limited (no more than 1 g per day). It is at this stage that conventional products can be replaced with solutions of nutrient mixtures. This diet contains a minimum of proteins (5 g), fats (15-20 g) and carbohydrates.

The following dishes are allowed:

  • weak meat broth (nonfat);
  • rice broth with a small amount of cream;
  • decoction of dried fruits (strained);
  • liquid berry jelly (without berries);
  • rosehip broth with sugar;
  • strained compote of fresh fruits and berries;
  • tea with sugar and lemon wedges;
  • freshly prepared juices diluted with sweet water 2-3 times (up to 50 ml per reception).
  • fruit jelly
  • the amount of liquid is 2 liters per day.

With satisfactory health in the postoperative period, the diet expands after 3 days and the patient is transferred to Diet 0B, which already contains 40-50 g of protein, the same amount of fat and 250 g of carbohydrates.

Diet 0B includes already boiled and steam products from minced meat, carefully mashed and mashed liquid cereals. First, the volume of new food should be 70-100 ml per reception and gradually increase to 300 g.

The food is introduced:

  • mashed cereals (buckwheat, rice, oatmeal) in liquid form, cereals can be cooked in water, with broth or milk;
  • cereal mucous soups, mashed soups and cream soups, weak meat broth with the addition of semolina;
  • soft-boiled egg, steamed protein omelettes;
  • wheat bread crackers up to 50 g;
  • 20 g butter and 50 g cream;
  • steam meat and fish souffle, meat and fish puree;
  • liquid vegetable puree (use potatoes, carrots, squash, pumpkin);
  • jelly, mashed potatoes and mousses from fruits and berries - not more than 100 g per day;
  • fermented milk drinks, mashed cottage cheese with milk or cream, steamed cottage cheese dishes;
  • drinks, as in the previous diet.

Diet 0V includes 90 g of protein and 70 g of fat, 6 g of salt. Food is still steamed and mashed. Additionally, the number of crackers increases to 100 g, cream to 100 g, eggs to 2-3 pcs. per day, baked apples, lumpy boiled fish, mashed cauliflower, mashed barley and pearl barley porridge. Limited are introduced dishes from the cutlet mass.

Further, patients who have undergone a resection of the stomach, surgical Diet number 1 - It is physiologically complete, with a high protein content (110 g), a fat content of 90-100 g and with a restriction of simple carbohydrates. Table number 1surgical differs from standard Diet No. 1 by the inclusion of weak broths (meat / fish / vegetable), and whole milk is limited.

Then, after 4 months (sometimes after 5 months), it is recommended to switch to non-wiped Table №5r, which further burdens the gastrointestinal tract, adapts its functioning to new conditions after surgery. At the same time, strong pathogens of secretion (spicy, spices, fried foods, onions, garlic), foods that are difficult to digest and stay for a long time in the stomach (mushrooms, hard meat, vegetables with coarse fiber) are excluded.

Allowed Products

Zero diet for peptic ulcer disease includes:

  • Wheat bread crackers. Their number gradually increases from 50 to 100 g per day.
  • Mashed soups and cream soups from cereals, vegetables, fish and meat. They add egg-milk mixture, cream. From vegetables, potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, pumpkin, and zucchini are used. You can also add mashed beef liver to soups.
  • Mashed cereals in milk or water: semolina, rice, oatmeal, buckwheat. A little later, when expanding the diet, barley and pearl barley cereals can be introduced (if well tolerated).
  • Mashed vegetables. You can use potatoes, carrots, zucchini, pumpkin and in the finished dishes add butter or vegetable oil.
  • Low-fat meat of young animals (beef, veal, chicken, rabbit). First, they are cooked in the form of mashed potatoes, soufflé, and then in the form of steamed cutlets. However, cutlets should not be consumed often at first.
  • Low-fat varieties of fish cooked in the form of pastes, mashed potatoes, soufflé and cutlets. Later, lumpy boiled fish is introduced. For cooking, you can use cod, ice, pollock, pike perch, pike, saffron cod, blue whiting or nototeniya.
  • Milk and cream added to dishes, pureed cottage cheese, which is bred to a semi-liquid state, cottage cheese dishes, milk jelly, sour-milk drinks.
  • Eggs up to 2-3 pieces per day in the form of steam omelettes and soft-boiled.
  • Fruits and berries - only thermally processed and mashed (mashed potatoes, baked apples, jellies, mousses, jelly and stewed fruit with mashed fruit).
  • Juices: plum, apricot, peach, rosehip broth, vegetable juices, weak tea, weak coffee with milk.
  • Butter and vegetable oil in dishes.

Approved Product Table

Proteins, gFats, gCarbohydrates, gCalories, kcal

Vegetables and greens

cauliflower2,50,35,430
potatoes2,00,418,180
carrot1,30,16,932
pumpkin1,30,37,728

Cereals and cereals

buckwheat groats (kernel)12,63,362,1313
semolina10,31,073,3328
cereals11,97,269,3366
white rice6,70,778,9344
barley grits10,41,366,3324

Confectionery

jelly2,70,017,979

Raw materials and seasonings

honey0,80,081,5329
sugar0,00,099,7398
milk sauce2,07,15,284

Milk products

milk3,23,64,864
cream2,820,03,7205

Cheeses and cottage cheese

cottage cheese17,25,01,8121

Meat products

cooked beef25,816,80,0254
boiled veal30,70,90,0131
rabbit21,08,00,0156

Bird

boiled chicken25,27,40,0170
turkey19,20,70,084

Eggs

chicken eggs12,710,90,7157

Oils and Fats

butter0,582,50,8748

Soft Drinks

mineral water0,00,00,0-
black tea with milk and sugar0,70,88,243

Juices and compotes

apricot juice0,90,19,038
jelly0,20,016,768
carrot juice1,10,16,428
peach juice0,90,19,540
plum juice0,80,09,639
pumpkin juice0,00,09,038
rosehip juice0,10,017,670
* data are per 100 g of product

Fully or partially restricted products

Diet 0 provides an exception:

  • any not wiped and dense consistency of dishes;
  • rye bread and flour products;
  • whole milk and cream;
  • uncooked cereal and vegetable soups;
  • pork, lamb, duck and goose meat;
  • raw vegetables and uncooked cooked;
  • legumes and white cabbage;
  • fatty fish, smoked fish and canned food;
  • hard-boiled, fried and raw eggs;
  • millet groats;
  • cooking fats, lard, margarine;
  • not mashed fruits and berries, berries and fresh fruits, grapes in any form, including juice;
  • carbonated drinks, strong caffeine-containing drinks (tea, coffee, cocoa), undiluted fruit juices;
  • spices and any ready-made sauces.

Prohibited Products Table

Proteins, gFats, gCarbohydrates, gCalories, kcal

Vegetables and greens

legumes vegetables9,11,627,0168
horseradish3,20,410,556

Cereals and cereals

corn grits8,31,275,0337
pearl barley9,31,173,7320
millet groats11,53,369,3348

Bakery products

wheat bread8,11,048,8242

Confectionery

jam0,30,263,0263
candies4,319,867,5453

Ice cream

ice cream3,76,922,1189

Raw materials and seasonings

mustard5,76,422,0162
ketchup1,81,022,293
mayonnaise2,467,03,9627
ground black pepper10,43,338,7251
chilli2,00,29,540

Milk products

kefir3,42,04,751
sour cream2,820,03,2206
yogurt2,92,54,153

Meat products

pork16,021,60,0259

Sausages

cured / dried sausage24,138,31,0455

Bird

smoked chicken27,58,20,0184
duck16,561,20,0346
smoked duck19,028,40,0337
goose16,133,30,0364

Fish and seafood

stockfish17,54,60,0139
smoked fish26,89,90,0196
canned fish17,52,00,088

Oils and Fats

cream margarine0,582,00,0745
animal fat0,099,70,0897
cooking fat0,099,70,0897

Soft Drinks

black tea20,05,16,9152
* data are per 100 g of product

Menu (Power Mode)

The first days after the operation, the food is rather scarce and includes only liquid dishes. The menu becomes more diverse from the third to fourth day, when the patient is allowed to use mashed cereals, soups based on cereals and meat dishes.

Breakfast
  • mashed porridge on the water;
  • steam omelet;
  • tea with sugar and lemon.
Lunch
  • mashed cottage cheese with milk.
Dinner
  • egg-flavored chicken stock;
  • steamed chicken souffle;
  • rosehip infusion.
High tea
  • soft-boiled egg;
  • fruit jelly.
Dinner
  • liquid oatmeal with butter;
  • souffle from boiled pike perch;
  • tea.
For the night
  • portion of fruit jelly.
Breakfast
  • semolina porridge in milk with butter;
  • poached egg;
  • jelly.
Lunch
  • cottage cheese and mashed baked apple.
Dinner
  • cream soup;
  • liver pate;
  • rosehip infusion.
High tea
  • omelet with butter;
  • crackers.
Dinner
  • mashed rice porridge;
  • fish dumplings;
  • tea with sugar.
For the night
  • kefir.
Breakfast
  • mashed oatmeal;
  • soft-boiled egg;
  • tea.
Lunch
  • cottage cheese souffle with semolina.
Dinner
  • mashed buckwheat soup with carrots;
  • steam meat dumplings;
  • Apple juice.
High tea
  • milk jelly with crackers.
Dinner
  • mashed buckwheat porridge;
  • pike paste;
  • tea.
For the night
  • kefir.

Diet Recipes 0 table

First meal

Vegetable cream soup

Sliced ​​carrots, potatoes, onions and cauliflower are boiled, laying in hot unsalted water. Separately, prepare milk sauce: 0.5 tbsp. l the flour is heated in a saucepan and a glass of milk is added, stirring constantly until thickened. Rub the prepared vegetables, add milk sauce, bring to a boil and salt to taste. The dish is seasoned with butter, served with crackers.

Fish soup puree

Sliced ​​carrots and potatoes are boiled and wiped. Boiled fish is also wiped. Combine the ingredients, introduce the flour and add the fish stock with stirring. Bring to a boil. You can salt a little. Butter is introduced into the finished dish.

Second courses

Steamed fish souffle

Boiled fish is passed through a meat grinder or whipped in a blender, add yolks, a little semolina. The mass is combined with whipped proteins, placed in molds and steamed. The finished dish is poured with butter.

Boiled meat and semolina souffle

Boiled lean meat is passed several times through a meat grinder, add yolks, salt and beat well. Combine with whipped proteins, spread into molds (or one large form) and steam. When serving, pour over butter.

Dessert

Apple mousse with semolina

Peel and core apples, cut into cubes and boil. Rub the prepared apples, add the apple broth and sugar. Cook for 10 minutes with stirring, adding semolina. After cooling, beat to a foamy mass. Pour into molds and cool.

Advantages and disadvantages

prosMinuses
  • Provides gastric sparing after surgery.
  • Eliminates inflammation, helps restore stomach function.
  • Not full and not balanced, therefore, it can be used only a short time after surgery.

Feedback and Results

The principle of gradual loading of the gastrointestinal tract allows it to adapt after surgery. At first, food can not be called diverse, but after a month it becomes full and balanced, but retains the principles of sparing. Reviews of patients indicate that clinical nutrition is necessary after surgery for peptic ulcer. It favorably affects the general condition of the patient and the function of the stomach.

  • "... My husband was operated on 12 years ago. During abdominal surgery, 2/3 of the stomach was removed. I have been on medical nutrition for a long time. For a whole month on a pureed diet: soups, cereals, meat, fish, liver pastes and souffle. Then he began to eat the same, but not mashed. The fish began to eat a piece, and steam cutlets were made from meat. Of course, all this was without spices, salt at least a month later began to add boiled and mashed onions - it became tastier. To date, does not drink alcohol and does not eat anything hot and fried. I am pleased with the operation, now I have already forgotten about the pain and frequent exacerbations of the ulcer. Of course, surgery and such nutritional restrictions affected weight. For 7 months I lost almost 7 kg";
  • "... peptic ulcer was for many years. At the next gastroscopy, the doctor suspected that the ulcer had degenerated into cancer. They did a biopsy, a tomogram of the peritoneum and lymph nodes. They did not find metastases, and the biopsy did not show anything terrible, but decided to operate, since the ulcer was large with elements of severe inflammation and a tendency to bleed. I had to agree to an operation (resection). The recovery period was normal. For two months I followed a diet and gradually expanded it. Steam cutlets and meatballs, mashed cereals, boiled fish and non-fried light soups - this is what you need for an operated stomach. Never during this time did not bother belching, discomfort or bloating. It’s a little difficult to constantly cook yourself separately and take on diet meals";
  • "... Operated 3 years ago - suturing perforations. It is good that I immediately turned and the correct diagnosis was made, so peritonitis did not have time to develop. The defect was removed and there was no resection. After the operation, only a month was on a strict diet (I mean mashed), and then switched to an uncooked steam or boiled table. He was so frightened of the perforation and operation that he decided to end the spicy dishes, fatty and fried, smoked meats and sausages. Only natural and homemade food. The hospital said the longer I stay on a diet, the less exacerbations there will be. The food is varied: cottage cheese, milk porridge, mainly soups and boiled meat. Everything can only be boiled or baked. For three years now, I have been on this diet and began to feel better - not only my stomach, but also my liver and intestines. The whole family supports, which is great".

Diet price

Since the diet is very modest for the first time after surgery, the cost of food can be 1200-1300 rubles. in Week.

Watch the video: A Sample Ketogenic Diet Meal Plan (January 2020).

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