A hypocaloric diet, as its name implies, is a nutritional system with reduced calorie content. The popularity of this type of diet is caused by the problem of increased body weight, which affects almost 40% of the total population. In addition, diets of this type are often used for health and aesthetic purposes and are prescribed for a number of diseases (diabetes, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, liver diseases, coronary heart disease).
There are many varieties of hypocaloric diets (Mediterranean, Dr. Montignac's dietvegetarian diets South Coast Diet, Khayrullin diet and others.) Most hypocaloric diets are based on the restriction in the diet of the predominantly carbohydrate component with a slight restriction of animal fats, however, there are hypocaloric diets for weight loss (sports diets) with a significant restriction of fats in the diet (up to 10-15%).
A classic hypocaloric diet can be considered a therapeutic Table number 8 with its varieties according to Pevzner (8A / 8o). Its main feature is the correlation of the energy value of the diet with the level of body weight in excess of the physiological norm. So, in the presence of excess weight (but not obesity) calorie intake decreases to 1800 kcal / day, with obesity of 1 degree - up to 1500 kcal / day, 2 degrees - 1200 and 3-4 degrees - 800 kcal / day (hospital, bed rest).
The key requirement is to maintain the protein quota at the level of physiological norm (at least 90-100 g / day). Calorie reduction is done by eliminating foods that contain simple carbohydrates (confectionery, honey, sugar, sweets) and saturated fats (fatty meats / fatty dairy products) from the diet. Protein products (lean meat, white fish, egg white, cottage cheese) should be present even with a diet with maximum reduction.
It is generally accepted that in order to achieve the effect, a moderate hypocaloric diet should ensure a reduction in caloric intake at a level of 20% (an average of 500 kcal / day) with a constant level of physical activity. A diet with a deficit of 500-600 kcal / day can achieve weight loss of approximately 0.5 kg / week (5-10 kg / 3-5 months). A faster rate of weight loss is not physiologically justified, since it does not allow to achieve weight stabilization (to preserve the result for a long time).
The best option is an individually selected moderately hypocaloric low-fat diet with a given energy deficit and a ratio of food nutrients at the level of 15-20%, proteins, 20-25% fats in the proportion of 1/3 of the animal and 2/3 of vegetable fat and 55-60% of the daily calories, carbohydrates. Such a not very strict diet provides weight loss at the level of 10% of body weight (MT) for several months. It is important that such a diet contains all the necessary nutrients and can be observed for a long time.
Many people make the mistake of trying to drastically reduce the calorie content of the diet for a short period of time on a diet. Typically, this approach causes stress for the body and, after a slight weight loss, it begins to reduce energy consumption by slowing down metabolic processes, thereby adapting to a new diet, accordingly, the weight stops decreasing - the so-called diet plateau sets in.
Then there is another erroneous strategy - an attempt to overcome the plateau by further reducing the calorie intake. In no case do this, the effect will not be, and if you lose weight, then not by much and temporarily. This is the way to a standstill. After 7-10 days, weight loss will stop again and you will have to tighten your diet again. This process can not last indefinitely, and after the cessation of efforts, the weight will begin to grow and is likely to exceed the original.
The paradox, however, losing weight with diets with moderate calorie restrictions can go faster than with diets with severe restrictions! Moreover, with moderate dietary restrictions, energy consumption can be stimulated, and with strict diets, energy consumption is suppressed, approaching the level of energy consumption.
Thus, a moderate calorie restriction is preferred. Another danger of low-calorie diets is the lack of a number of essential food factors - vitamins/ minerals indispensable amino acids, omega 3 PUFA. Their deficit reduces speed metabolism. According to nutritionists, a lack of vitamins and minerals is a frequent / constant companion of low-calorie diets. And the stricter the diet, the more uniform the food, the more likely their content in the diet is below a critical level.
In addition, a moderate restriction provides a more comfortable psychological state, while diets with a sharp calorie restriction are accompanied by a strong feeling of hunger, decreased performance, general weakness, headacheexpressed by mental discomfort (unstable mood /depression).
The best option for a low-calorie diet is the calorie daily diet for men at 1800 kcal and 1200 kcal for women. Do not forget that with a further decrease in caloric content in conditions of energy deficiency, muscle proteins can be included in the metabolism due to activation gluconeogenesis, which is extremely dangerous and undesirable.
One of the factors that increase the effectiveness of a hypocaloric diet is its combination with regular physical activity, which allows you to increase energy consumption. At the same time, medium-intensity loads or tonic loads of low intensity (such as recreational walking) are recommended. Loads of this kind are served mainly due to fats, and against their background increases the activity of hormones adrenaline/norepinephrine and activates the system for extracting fats from stocks. Muscle tone after training remains elevated for a long time, so energy consumption increases.
A mandatory requirement for a hypocaloric diet is to take into account the qualitative characteristics of the main nutritional nutrients.
- The protein component should be represented in diets of this type to a greater extent by complete proteins of animal origin (60-70%) - meat, fish, egg white, seafood, dairy products and to a lesser extent - of vegetable origin (30-40%) - cereals, soybeans, beans, mushrooms, peas. Daily protein requirements can vary between 1.0-1.5 g / kg of body weight. Also, it must be borne in mind that animal protein products often also contain fat, therefore, in general, their caloric content is higher than that of protein products of plant origin.
- Fats are the most high-calorie component of nutrition. There are animal fats (fatty meat, butter / ghee, lard, waterfowl, fish, meat products, dairy products) and vegetable origin (corn, sunflower, olive, linseed oil, nuts, olives, seeds). Animal fats contain predominantly saturated fatty acids, rich in cholesterol. Vegetable fats mainly contain unsaturated fatty acids, do not increase blood cholesterol /low density lipoprotein. Fats cause a weak feeling of fullness and contribute to overeating, as they give food a pleasant taste. There is a direct correlation between body weight and the amount of fat consumed. Therefore, a diet with a restriction of animal fats significantly reduces caloric intake and thereby contributes to weight loss. The optimal ratio of animal to vegetable fats is 70 to 30. When preparing a diet of a low-calorie diet, one should also take into account "hidden" fats contained in sausages, cheeses, smoked meats, confectionery, offal, ice cream and other products and avoid their consumption.
- Carbohydrates. There are indigestible (fiber) and slow / fast digestible carbohydrates. The main sources of non-digestible carbohydrates are cereals, vegetables, herbs, wholemeal flour, fruits, berries. Non-digestible carbohydrates in the intestine are not broken down / not absorbed (with the exception of legumes), are not affected by body weight, they slow down the absorption of fat and quickly create a feeling of satiety.
Assimilable carbohydrates include:
- Digestible (simple sugars: sucrose, lactose, glucose, maltose), which are easily / quickly absorbed into the blood. Sources are: sugar, jam, juices, honey, confectionery, chocolate, sweets, sweet drinks, fruits / berries (but fiber of fruits and berries prevents rapid absorption), liquid dairy products.
- Slowly digestible (complex carbohydrates) - starch, pectin. It is absorbed into the blood more slowly, since it requires preliminary cleavage. Sources: potatoes, cereals (flour, cereals, bread, pasta, corn).
In the diet of hypocaloric diets, indigestible / slowly digestible carbohydrates are preferred. Refined carbohydrates, as well as “hidden” carbohydrates in various foods require special attention. A carbohydrate restriction in moderate hypocaloric diets below 150 g / day is not recommended.
You should not confuse standard low-calorie diets with a low-carb diet, in which the carbohydrate component is limited to 40-50 g / day, but the fat content increases. Diets of this type (keto diet, LCHF Diet) are based on other principles, since they are based on the transition of the body from the traditional mechanism of obtaining energy from carbohydrates (glycolysis) on ketogenesis (getting energy from adipose tissue).
Thus, the following are excluded from the diet:
- High-calorie foods that contain a lot of fat (fatty meat and sausage, mayonnaise, vegetable / butter, fatty fish, margarine, fatty cheese, nuts, seeds, waterfowl, sour cream, smoked meats, canned food, cream).
- Easily digestible carbohydrates (dried fruits, sugar and sugar-containing sweets, ice cream, chocolate, confectionery).
- Alcohol-containing drinks.
The consumption of foods with an average calorie content (pasta, potatoes, all types of bread from premium flour / bakery products) is limited.
The consumption of low-calorie foods is increasing (vegetables, except for potatoes / legumes), all kinds of greens (salad herbs), vegetable oils, mushrooms, dairy / sour milk products with low fat content, chicken eggs, seafood (squid, mussels, crab, oysters, shrimps), nonfat varieties of meat / fish, seaweed, whole grain cereals, dietary varieties of bread / bread with the addition of crushed grains, bran, legumes.
To increase the efficiency, it is recommended to periodically (1-2 times / 10 days) practice low-energy fasting days (500-750 kcal / day), since they contribute to the restructuring of the metabolism / accelerate the mobilization of fat from the depot. There are many options for fasting days: kefir, fish, meat, cottage cheese, vegetable / fruit, and combinations thereof.
Additionally, it is recommended to include vitamin-mineral complexes in the diet, and, if necessary, pre- and probiotics. It is extremely important to combine the products correctly, in particular, consume protein with vegetables / greens, observe a rational diet - take the carbohydrate component mainly in the morning, and distribute the protein component evenly over meals, use cooking methods with a minimum amount of fat (bake, steam, simmer, frying foods is not allowed). Consume 2-2.5 L / day of free fluid.
The basis of the diet of hypocaloric diets are:
- Low-fat varieties of red meat (veal, beef), poultry (chicken, turkey) and rabbit.
- Chicken eggs cooked in any way.
- River / sea fish (herring, hake, tuna, pike, salmon) in any cooking, seafood (squid, mussels, crabs, oysters, shrimps).
- Legumes (beans, lentils, peas, chickpeas), mushrooms, seaweed.
- Cold pressed vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, linseed, corn).
- Whole grain cereals (oatmeal, buckwheat, wheat).
- Low fat / dairy / dairy products.
- Dietary sorts of bread / bread with the addition of crushed grains, bran.
- Fiber-rich vegetables (onions, carrots, cabbage, zucchini, eggplant, celery stalks, tomatoes, gourds, zucchini, cucumbers, green beans), green salad leaves, garden greens.
- Walnuts, olives, flax seed.
Approved Product Table
|Proteins, g||Fats, g||Carbohydrates, g||Calories, kcal|
Vegetables and greens
Nuts and dried fruits
Cereals and cereals
|whole grain bread||10,1||2,3||57,1||295|
|fermented baked milk||2,8||4,0||4,2||67|
Cheeses and cottage cheese
|boiled chicken breast||29,8||1,8||0,5||137|
|Soft boiled chicken eggs||12,8||11,6||0,8||159|
Fish and seafood
|cod (liver in oil)||4,2||65,7||1,2||613|
Oils and Fats
|* data are per 100 g of product|
Fully or partially restricted products
With a hypocaloric diet in the diet, it is prohibited / sharply limited to use:
- Fat red meat and meat of domestic waterfowl (duck, goose), smoked meats, sausages, lard, bacon, convenience foods, fast food.
- Wheat bread, dough, crackers, bakery products (rolls, gingerbread cookies, pies, cookies), waffles, cakes, pastries, pancakes, dumplings, dumplings.
- Sugar / products containing it, chocolate, sweets, honey, halva, jam, dried fruits (dried apricots, raisins, figs, dates, prunes), condensed milk, ice cream,
- Sweet fermented milk products (yogurts with fruit additives), semolina porridge.
- Some vegetables (potatoes), sweet fruits (bananas, grapes).
- Alcohol-containing drinks (sweet / semi-sweet wines, beer), caffeinated products, hot / spicy sauces, seasonings.
Prohibited Products Table
|Proteins, g||Fats, g||Carbohydrates, g||Calories, kcal|
Vegetables and greens
Nuts and dried fruits
Flour and Pasta
Raw materials and seasonings
|fruit yogurt 3.2%||5,0||3,2||8,5||85|
Fish and seafood
|dessert white wine 16%||0,5||0,0||16,0||153|
|coffee with milk and sugar||0,7||1,0||11,2||58|
Juices and compotes
|the grape juice||0,3||0,0||14,0||54|
|* data are per 100 g of product|
Hypocaloric Diet Menu (Diet)
The hypocaloric diet menu is built on the basis of recommended / prohibited foods for use in accordance with a given calorie daily diet and individual taste preferences.
Heavy diabetic retinopathychronic renal failure, heavy physical labor, unstable angina pectoris, age under 18 years, gastrointestinal diseases, period of pregnancy/ lactation, endocrine diseases, mental disorders, chronic constipation, Ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias high degree gout, osteoporosisacute infectious diseases, old age, atherosclerosis.
Advantages and disadvantages
Feedback and Results
As practice shows, a correctly selected hypocaloric diet and reviews of people who were on it, allows you to solve the problem of correcting body weight, to achieve a healing effect.
- "... I have overweight almost all my life (as long as I remember myself). I tried various low-calorie diets, but after losing weight after 3-4 months, the weight returned to its original level, often exceeding it. After my excess weight exceeded 15 kg, I was advised to go to the hospital. After the examination, I was assigned Table No. 8. I stayed on a medical diet for 8 months, and over this period of time I managed to bring my weight back to normal. But I still continue to control my body weight and, if I see that it exceeds the physiological norm by 1-2 kg, I immediately sit down on Diet No. 8 with one or two days of fasting. I realized that it’s better not to run the problem";
- "... I don’t know how anyone, but I can’t tolerate a hypocaloric diet. I started this diet several times, but I can’t stand it for more than a week - I just can’t do it without sweets. The state of health worsens, a headache begins, weakness appears, and the mood is terrible. Especially pesters a strong and constant feeling of hunger. Usually this week I lose weight by 2-3 kg, but the weight is quickly restored. I probably need a different diet";
- "... A hypocaloric diet, if used without any strict restrictions, is a great option for those who want to lose weight. I periodically (in the spring) go on such a diet to bring myself back to normal after winter. I tolerate the diet relatively easily, although the amount of carbohydrates (sugar and sweets) is low, hunger is not pronounced. I approach the preparation of the diet very carefully, I found a special website-calculator for calculating the content of BJU in food and now I am well-versed in what I can and in what quantities and what not".
A hypocaloric diet includes year-round available foods. Calculation of different options for the menu indicates that the financial costs of the products for the week vary in the range of 1500-1600 rubles.