Today, the truth is that antibiotics ineffective for colds, fluand ARVIis well known. But, despite the fact that this is well known to specialists, patients often take antibacterial agents for viral infections simply "for prevention". After all, when patients with a cold are recommended to follow those well-known rules that are relevant in the treatment of such diseases, many people think that drinking plenty of fluids, consuming food with vitamins, keeping bed rest, and gargling is not enough to cure the disease. Therefore, many either begin to take strong antibiotics on their own, or practically “beg” a specialist to prescribe them any drugs.
Many people think that they ask on the forums which drug is better to drink for a cold. And they are treated according to tips, without prescriptions and appointments. Moreover, now it is not difficult to purchase such a medicine without a doctor’s prescription, although most antibacterial drugs should be sold on prescription.
Very often, such mistakes are made by parents who simply do not know when to give their child an antibiotic. Many pediatricians prefer to "play it safe" and prescribe such medicines to colds just "for the purpose of prevention" in order to prevent complications in the future.
But in fact, the best way to treat a cold in a child is to follow the same traditional tips about drinking plenty of fluids, moisturizing and airing the room, using alternative folk methods and symptomatic use of medicines for temperature. After some time, the body will overcome the attack of a viral respiratory infection.
Actually, the appointment of antibiotics for colds is connected precisely with the desire to prevent the development of complications. Indeed, among preschool children in the modern world, there is really a high risk of complications.
Not every kid the immune system works without fail. Therefore, many pediatricians, trying to play it safe so that later they are not accused of incompetence, prescribe these medicines for babies.
It is important to understand that drinking antibiotics in colds is in most cases useless, since most often colds with and without fever are of viral origin. And this means that taking antibiotics in case of a cold is useless.
It is better to drink antibiotics in the event that after a virus attack certain complications develop, an attachment has occurred bacterial infectionlocalized in the nasal or oral cavity, bronchi, lungs.
About what to drink with a cold without a temperature, whether it is possible to drink antibiotics at a temperature, and in which cases it is worth taking antibacterial agents, we will discuss below.
Is it possible to determine from the analyzes that antibiotics are necessary?
Currently, far from every case, laboratory tests are carried out that can confirm that the infection is bacterial in nature. Sowing urine, sputum is an expensive test, and they are performed infrequently. Exception - swabs from the nose and throat with sore throat on Lefler's wand (this is a pathogen diphtheria) Also with chronic tonsillitis carry out selective crops of the discharge tonsilsurine culture in patients with urinary tract pathologies.
Changes in the indicators of a clinical blood test are indirect signs of the development of a bacterial inflammatory process. In particular, the doctor is guided by an increased indicator ESR, increase in quantity white blood cellsleft shift of the leukocyte formula.
How to determine that complications are developing?
To understand which drug is best given to a child or an adult, it is important to determine whether complications are developing. It is possible to independently suspect that bacterial complications of the disease are developing, according to the following signs:
- The color of the discharge from the bronchi, nose, pharynx, ear changes - it becomes cloudy, becomes greenish or yellowish.
- If a bacterial infection joins, the temperature often rises again.
- If a bacterial infection affects the urinary system, then the urine becomes cloudy, a sediment may appear in it.
- Damage to the intestines leads to the appearance of mucus, blood or pus in the feces.
Identify complications of acute respiratory viral infections by the following signs:
- After improvement on about 5-6 days, the temperature rises again to an indicator of 38 degrees and above; health worsens, cough bothers, dyspnea; with coughing or taking a deep breath, it hurts in the chest - all these signs can indicate development pneumonia.
- In case of temperature, sore throat becomes more intense, plaque appears on the tonsils, lymph nodes on the neck increase - these signs require exclusion diphtheria.
- With the appearance of pain in the ear, if it flows from the ear, it can be assumed that it develops otitis media.
- If during rhinitis the voice has become nasal, the sense of smell has disappeared, it hurts in the forehead or face, and the pain intensifies when a person leans forward, then the inflammatory process of the paranasal sinuses develops.
In such a situation, you need to very carefully select antibiotics for colds. Which antibiotic is better for an adult with a cold, or which antibiotics for children with a cold is advisable to use, only a doctor makes a decision. After all, the choice of such drugs depends on many factors.
- age of a person;
- localization of complications;
- medical history of the patient;
- drug tolerance;
- antibiotic resistance.
The names of children's antibiotics for colds, the names of injections and the names of antibiotics for colds and flu for adults can be found on any medical site on the network, and their list is very wide. But this does not mean that good antibiotics for colds can be drunk simply "for prevention" if there are signs of complications. Even an antibacterial agent, in which 3 tablets in a package, can worsen the patient's condition, adversely affecting his the immune system.
Therefore, you should not be guided by the advice of friends about the fact that a particular drug is good, inexpensive, and you can not drink broad-spectrum antibiotics in any case. What antibiotics to take for colds should be determined solely by the attending physician.
When do you need to take antibiotics for uncomplicated ARVI?
With a cold, with ENT diseases or SARS, passing without complications, antibiotics do not need to be taken in such cases:
- if rhinitis with mucus and pus lasts less than 10-14 days;
- when a viral develops conjunctivitis;
- in case of viral tonsillitis;
- at nasopharyngitis;
- in case of development bronchitis, tracheitis, however, sometimes in the acute state with a high temperature, the use of antibacterial agents is still necessary;
- when laryngitis The child has;
- when appears herpes on the lips.
When should I drink antibiotics for uncomplicated ARVI?
Antibiotics for ARVI without complications are prescribed in such situations:
- If signs of a deterioration in immunity are detected: the temperature constantly rises to subfebrile indicators, the common cold and viral diseases of the baby are overcome more than five times a year, chronic and inflammatory diseases of the fungus are worried, a person has HIV, congenital immunity pathologies or oncological diseases.
- When blood diseases develop - aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis.
- Babies up to 6 months - with rachite, underweight, malformations.
In this case, antibiotics for acute respiratory viral infections in adults and especially antibiotics for acute respiratory viral infections in children are prescribed by a doctor. In such patients with acute respiratory infections, the doctor must monitor the condition of the body.
When are antibiotics prescribed?
Indications for the use of such drugs are:
- Bacterial tonsillitis - it is important to immediately exclude diphtheria, for which they take swabs from the nose and pharynx. With such a disease, macrolides are used or penicillins.
- Laryngotracheitis, bronchiectatic disease, exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or acute bronchitis - apply macrolides (Macropen) X-rays are sometimes required to rule out pneumonia.
- Purulent lymphadenitis - antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action of the last generation are used, sometimes consultations of a surgeon or hematologist are required.
- Otitis media in acute form, an otolaryngologist performs an otoscopy, after which he prescribes cephalosporins or macrolides.
- Pneumonia- after the condition has been confirmed by X-ray, semi-synthetic are prescribed penicillins.
- Sinusitis, sinusitis, ethmoiditis - X-ray and clinical signs are evaluated to establish a diagnosis.
If complications develop against the background of a viral infection, then taking into account the age, severity of the disease, and the medical history, the doctor determines which antibiotics to drink. These may be such medicines:
- Penicillin series - if the patient does not have an allergic reaction to penicillins, semi-synthetic penicillins are prescribed. This means Amoxicillin, Flemoxin Solutab. If a patient develops a severe resistant infection, then doctors prefer to prescribe the so-called “protected penicillins” (amoxicillin +clavulanic acid): Augmentin, Amoxiclav, Ecoclave. These are first-line drugs for angina.
- Macrolides - as a rule, are used for mycoplasma, chlamydial pneumonia, as well as for infectious diseases of ENT organs. This means Azithromycin(Hemomycin, Azitrox, Zetamax, Sumamed, Zitrolide and etc.). Means Macropen is the drug of choice for the treatment of bronchitis.
- Cephalosporin series are means Cefixime (Pancef, Supraxand etc.), Cefuroxime axetil(Zinnat, Super, Aksetin) and etc.
- Fluoroquinolones - these drugs are prescribed if the patient does not tolerate other antibiotics or if bacteria are resistant to penicillins. This means Moxifloxacin (Plevilox, Avelox, Moksimak), Levofloxacin(Floracid, Tavanic, Glevo and etc.).
For the treatment of children can not be used fluoroquinolones. These drugs are considered “reserve” drugs, because they may be needed in adulthood to treat infections that are resistant to other drugs.
It is very important that the appointment of antibiotics and the choice of what is best for the common cold should be made by the doctor. The specialist must act in such a way as to provide the most effective care to the patient. Moreover, the purpose should be such that it does not harm a person in the future.
Already, scientists have identified a very serious problem associated with antibiotics. The fact is that pharmacological companies do not take into account the fact that the resistance of pathogens to antibacterial agents is constantly growing, and present users with new drugs that could be in reserve for a certain time.
So, it is important to understand that antibiotics are indicated for bacterial infections, while the origin of colds in most cases (up to 90%) is viral. Therefore, the use of antibiotics in this case is not only useless, but also harmful.
The question of whether it is possible to take antibiotics and antiviral drugs at the same time is also inappropriate in this case, since such a combination exacerbates the overall burden on the body.
It should be borne in mind that antibiotics have a pronounced negative effect. They inhibit kidney and liver function, worsen immunityprovoke allergic manifestations and dysbiosis. Therefore, the question of whether it is necessary and whether it is possible to drink such medicines should be treated very soberly.
You can not use antibacterial agents for the purpose of prevention. Some parents give children antibiotics for the common cold in order to prevent complications. But antibiotics for colds in adults and children - this approach is completely wrong, as with other manifestations of the common cold. It is important to consult a specialist in time, who can timely identify complications of the disease and only then prescribe such drugs. With a cold for children, initially you need to take those measures that are not related to the use of synthetic medicines.
It is possible to determine whether antibiotics work by whether the temperature decreases. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy proves that the temperature drops to 37-38 degrees, and the general condition improves. If this relief does not occur, the antibiotic must be replaced with another.
Evaluate the effect of the drug should be for three days. Only after this, the medicine, in the absence of action, is replaced.
With frequent and uncontrolled use of antibacterial agents, resistance to them develops. Accordingly, each time a person will need stronger drugs or the use of two different drugs at once.
You can’t take antibiotics for the flu, as many do. The doctor prescribes anti-flu drugs, which are a viral disease, based on the patient’s condition. The question of which antibiotics to drink with influenza arises only in the case of a serious deterioration in the patient's condition.