PMS - what is it for women

General information

Doctors have always tried to determine the reasons why women feel unwell and irritable on the days immediately before monthly. In ancient times, this phenomenon was associated with various factors - and with the phases of the moon, and with the health of a woman, and with the features of the area where she lived. However, the condition before menstruation was a mystery to the Aesculapius. Only in the twentieth century did doctors manage to some extent to figure out what was happening with the ladies.

Speaking about ICP - what is it, one should know how ICP is deciphered - this premenstrual syndrome, which means - a manifestation characteristic of women in the days before menstruation. PMS is a complex of symptoms that appear in women and girls a few days before the onset of menstruation.

What are the causes of such manifestations, and what does this syndrome mean, scientists are still investigating. Those who are interested in how PMS is translated should learn in more detail what manifestations are characteristic of this condition. Each transcript, what is PMS in girls, contains a description of all the characteristic symptoms and manifestations.

Indeed, PMS in women is a whole complex of symptoms, both physical and mental, their scientists counted about 150. About 75% of women experience premenstrual syndrome to varying degrees.

As a rule, PMS in girls begins to appear approximately 2-10 days before the day when signs of menstruation appear. After menstruation ends, menstrual syndrome also completely disappears.

Why is PMS developing?

So far, all the studies conducted have not made it possible to determine why premenstrual syndrome manifests itself? There are many theories that explain why this condition develops.

  • The so-called "water intoxication" is a disturbed water-salt metabolism.
  • Allergic nature - high sensitivity of the body to endogenous progesterone.
  • Psychosomatic - the development of physiological symptoms due to the influence of mental factors.

The most complete and widespread today is the hormonal theory, according to which PMS is explained by strong hormonal fluctuations in the second phase of the cycle. Indeed, for the female body to function correctly, the normal hormonal balance is important:

  • estrogensable to improve well-being, both physical and mental, to activate mental activity, increase vitality;
  • progesteroneprovides a sedative effect, which can lead to a depressive state in the second phase;
  • androgensaffect libido, increase working capacity and energy.

In the second phase of the cycle, the hormonal background of a woman changes. Therefore, hormonal theory suggests that the body responds inadequately to such a "storm". Interestingly, premenstrual tension syndrome is inherited.

Since in the premenstrual period, the body notes endocrine instability, this leads to the manifestation of somatic and psycho-vegetative disorders. The main reason for this is the fluctuation of sex hormones during the monthly cycle and the reaction to this of the limbic parts of the brain.

  • When level increases estrogen and first grows, and then the level decreases progesterone, there are swelling, tenderness of the mammary glands, dysfunctions of the heart and blood vessels, pressure surges, irritability and aggression in women.
  • With increased secretion prolactinfluid is also retained in the body.
  • When content increases prostaglandins, there are violations of the vegetative-vascular nature, digestive disorders - diarrhea, constipation, nausea, and headaches resembling migraine.

Thus, modern doctors distinguish the following factors that determine the development of PMS:

  • Downgrade serotonin, which leads to the manifestation of mental symptoms of premenstrual syndrome: with a decrease in this hormone, sadness is noted, depressionlonging.
  • Disadvantage vitamin b6 leads to fluid retention, increased breast sensitivity, mood changes.
  • Magnesium deficiency leads to symptoms such as dizziness, tachycardia, headache, desire to eat sweets.
  • Smoking - women who smoke suffer from PMS twice as often.
  • Excess weight - Those with a body mass index greater than 30 are more likely to experience symptoms of this syndrome.
  • Genetics - the propensity for PMS can be inherited.
  • Complex births, abortions, gynecological operations.
  • Stress.

The main symptoms of PMS in women

Speaking about what are the symptoms of PMS, how many days before menstruation in girls and women they appear, it is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of each organism. The main signs of PMS before menstruation, doctors are divided into several different groups. The following symptoms of premenstrual syndrome are distinguished (in groups):

  • Neuropsychic: depression, aggression, irritability and tearfulness.
  • Metabolic endocrine: chills, swelling due to impaired water-salt metabolism, fever, discomfort in the mammary gland, flatulencebloating dyspnea, impaired vision and memory.
  • Vegetative-vascular: headache, pressure drops, nausea, diarrheavomiting dizzinesstachycardia heartache.

Speaking about what symptoms before menstruation appear in women, it should be noted that they can be conditionally divided into several forms. However, as a rule, they are combined. So, if pronounced psycho-vegetative disorders are noted, the pain threshold decreases, and the woman very acutely perceives pain - a week or a few days before menstruation.

What signs of menstruation for a week or for several days can be observed?

Neuropsychic formDisorders in the emotional and nervous spheres are manifested:

  • panic attacks, causeless anguish and depression may develop;
  • anxiety, a feeling of fear, a depressed state;
  • forgetfulness, impaired concentration, mood swings;
  • insomnia, increased or decreased libido;
  • aggression, dizziness.
Crisis form
  • Tachycardia, pressure drops, pain in the heart are noted;
  • frequent urination before menstruation, panic.
  • those who are characterized by this form, as a rule, have heart disease, kidney disease, poor digestion.
Atypical manifestations
  • The temperature rises to subfebrile indicators;
  • constantly worried about drowsiness, allergic manifestations, vomiting.
Edematous form
  • Negative diuresis and fluid retention in the body are characteristic.
  • Swelling of the extremities and face, itching of the skin, thirst, weight gain, lower back and joint pain, headache, decreased urination, digestive problems are manifested.
Cephalgic formIn the majority, vegetative-vascular and neurological symptoms are manifested:

  • migraine, cardialgia;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • tachycardia;
  • high sensitivity to smells and sounds.

Approximately 75% of women have increased vascular pattern, hyperostosis. With this form, as a rule, in a family history appears hypertension, diseases of the digestive system, heart disease and blood vessels.

Wikipedia and other sources indicate that for every lady PMS proceeds in its own way, and the symptoms may vary.

Scientists, having conducted a number of studies, and determined the frequency of symptoms of premenstrual syndrome:

SymptomPercentage of occurrence
Unpleasant sensations and pain in the mammary glands87
Depression, headaches, odor sensitivity56
Sweating, weakness, swelling50
Aggression, palpitations44
Lower abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea37
Diarrhea, increased blood pressure, weight gain19
Lower back pain3

In addition, PMS can significantly aggravate the course of other diseases:

  • epilepsy;
  • anemia;
  • thyroid disease;
  • migraine;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • chronic fatigue syndrome;
  • allergies;
  • irritable bowel syndrome;
  • diseases of the female genital area of ​​an inflammatory nature.

What conditions and diseases can be disguised as PMS?

To know how many days menstruation begins, each woman needs to have a calendar or a special notebook and write down the date of the start of menstruation, how long menstruation lasts, and also the day of ovulation (for this it is enough to measure the basal temperature). It is also worth noting the manifestation of symptoms before menstruation and well-being with ovulation.

If a woman keeps such records over several cycles, this helps her to establish with what frequency the signs of PMS appear. Also, the diary will help determine whether there is a delay in menstruation, etc.

To establish the diagnosis of "PMS", the doctor determines the presence of at least 4 signs from the following:

  • drowsiness, insomnia;
  • impaired attention and memory;
  • increased appetite, loss of appetite;
  • fatigue, weakness;
  • chest pain;
  • headache;
  • swelling
  • joint or muscle pain;
  • exacerbation of chronic diseases.

You can also diagnose this condition if at least one of the following symptoms is noted:

  • conflict, tearfulness, nervousness and irritability, sudden mood swings in women;
  • groundless anxiety, fear, tension;
  • feeling of longing without reason, depression;
  • depressive state;
  • aggressiveness.

To determine the severity of PMS, it is important to consider the number of manifestations, their severity and duration:

  • Mild - manifests itself from 1 to 4 symptoms, if it is 1-2 signs, then they are significantly pronounced.
  • Severe form - manifests itself from 2 to 12 signs, if these are 2-5 symptoms, then they are significantly pronounced. Sometimes they can lead to the fact that a woman becomes disabled one day or a few days before menstruation.

The cyclicity of manifestations is the main symptom that distinguishes premenstrual syndrome from other diseases. That is, premenstrual syndrome, this condition is when it begins before menstruation (from 2 to 10 days) and completely disappears after menstruation. But if psycho-vegetative symptoms disappear, then physical sensations sometimes pass in the first days of the cycle into painful periods or migraines.

If the woman’s sensations in the first phase of the cycle are relatively good, then this is PMS, and not an exacerbation of chronic diseases - depression, neurosis, fibrocystic mastopathy.

If soreness is noted only immediately before menstruation and during menstruation, and is combined with blood secretions in the middle of the cycle, this indicates that, most likely, the gynecological disease develops in the body - endometritis, endometriosisand etc.

To establish the form of PMS, hormones are examined: estradiol, prolactin, progesterone.

Additional research methods may also be prescribed, depending on which complaints prevail:

  • If you have very severe headaches, noise in ears, dizziness, fainting, visual impairment, it is necessary to perform a CT or MRI scan to exclude organic diseases of the brain.
  • With the predominance of neuropsychic symptoms, an EEG is performed to rule out epileptic syndrome.
  • If edema is disturbing, the amount of urine per day changes, tests are performed to diagnose the kidneys.
  • In case of significant breast engorgement, an ultrasound of the mammary glands should be performed, mammogram.

Women who suffer from PMS are examined not only by a gynecologist, but also by other specialists: neurologists, psychiatrists, nephrologists, endocrinologists, cardiologists, and general practitioners.

How to understand - PMS or pregnancy?

Since some symptoms during pregnancy are very similar to signs of PMS, it is important to consider the differences by which these conditions can be distinguished.

After conception has occurred, the hormone grows in the female body progesterone. As a result, a woman can confuse pregnancy with PMS when they begin to manifest: soreness and swelling of the breast, vomiting, nausea, mood swings, lower back pain, irritability.

Often, going to one or another thematic forum, one can see the reasoning of women on how to distinguish PMS from pregnancy to delay. Of course, if menstruation began in a timely manner, then the question is removed by itself. However, even in pregnant women, discharge sometimes appears on days. When should there be periods? There are differences in discharge before menstruation and during pregnancy - in pregnant women, as a rule, they are more scarce. But still, in order to verify the presence or absence of pregnancy, it is worth doing a test or conducting tests in honey. institution.

The following is a comparison of the most common signs of pregnancy and PMS.

SymptomDuring pregnancy With premenstrual syndrome
Chest painIt appears during pregnancyDisappears with the onset of menstruation
AppetiteTaste preferences change, the sense of smell is aggravated, usual smells irritateYou may want a sweet, salty, sensitive to smell, increased appetite
BackacheWorried in the last trimesterPossible lower back pain
FatigabilityIt appears about a month after conception.Possible both after ovulation, and a few days before menstruation
Pain in the lower abdomenShort, mild painManifested individually
Emotional conditionOften the mood changesIrritability, tearfulness appear
Rapid urinationMay beNo
ToxicosisStarts to develop approximately 4-5 weeks after conceptionMay be nausea, vomiting

Since the symptoms in these conditions are actually similar, and in some cases pregnancy is possible during menstruation (at least, a woman has such an impression if discharge appears), it is important to act correctly.

It’s best to wait until your period begins. If a woman notes that she already has a delay, it is necessary to conduct a pregnancy test, which reliably determines pregnancy after the delay. Those who want to immediately make sure that there was a conception can pass hCG blood test (pregnancy hormone). Such a test already on the tenth day after conception accurately determines pregnancy.

It is most correct in such a situation to visit a gynecologist, who will help to figure out what a woman actually has - PMS or pregnancy through examination, ultrasound. Sometimes the question also arises, how to distinguish pregnancy from menopause- in this case, you also need to see a doctor or do a test.

When should you contact a specialist?

If pain, irritability, increased tearfulness in women, the causes of which are associated with PMS, significantly reduce the quality of life and are very pronounced, you should consult a doctor and carry out the treatment prescribed by him. Also, the doctor can give effective recommendations on how to alleviate certain unpleasant manifestations.

How is PMS treated?

As a rule, with such manifestations, symptomatic therapy is prescribed. How to treat PMS, and whether it is worth prescribing any drugs for treatment, the specialist determines, given the form, symptoms, course of premenstrual syndrome. The following treatments may be prescribed:

  • With mood swings, depression, irritability, psychotherapy sessions, a relaxation technique, and a sedative medicine are prescribed.
  • If you have pains in the abdomen, lower back, headaches, it is recommended to take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve pain (tablets Nimesulide, Ibuprofen, Ketanovand etc.).
  • Also prescribed drugs for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome - diuretics in order to remove excess fluid and eliminate edema.
  • Hormone treatment is prescribed if there is insufficiency of the second phase of the cycle, after conducting functional diagnostics tests, guided by the results of the changes that have been identified. Assign gestagens - medroxyprogesterone acetate, Dufaston, they must be taken from 16 to 25 days of the menstrual cycle.
  • Tranquilizers and antidepressants are prescribed to women who develop numerous neuropsychic symptoms before menstruation: aggressiveness, nervousness, panic attacks, insomnia, etc. In such cases, they are prescribed Rudotel, Amitriptyline, Tazepam, Zoloft, Sertraline, Prozac, Sonapax. Drugs should be drunk in the second phase of the cycle, two days after the onset of symptoms.
  • If a critical or cephalgic form is diagnosed, may be prescribed Parlodelin the second phase of the monthly cycle. If prolactin is elevated, then Parlodel should be taken continuously.
  • If a woman develops an edematous or cephalgic form, antiprostaglandin drugs are prescribed (Naprosin, Indomethacin) in the second phase of the cycle.
  • Since PMS may increase serotoninand histamine, a specialist can prescribe treatment with second-generation antihistamines. You need to consider how many days the onset of symptoms begins, and start taking the pill 2 days before the expected development of these signs and continue to drink them until the second day of your period.
  • To activate blood circulation, apply Nootropil, Grandaxin, Aminolone for about 3 weeks.
  • In the case of the development of cephalgic, crisis and neuropsychic forms, drugs are prescribed that normalize the neurotransmitter metabolism in the central nervous system. Within 3 to 6 months, you need to take funds Diphenin, Peritol.
  • Also, the doctor may prescribe homeopathic remedies. Mastodinon, Remens, as well as vitamin-mineral complexes - for example, vitamins for depression for women.

How to alleviate the condition yourself?

If a woman is worried about PMS (sometimes mistakenly called "postmenstrual syndrome"), then she should use some recommendations to alleviate the condition.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended.

Have a good rest

You need to sleep as much time as the body needs for a good rest. As a rule, it is 8-10 hours. Many women who write on any topic forum note that it is the normalization of sleep that made it possible to reduce the severity of unpleasant symptoms. With a lack of sleep, anxiety, irritability, aggressiveness can develop, worsens immunity. For those with insomnia, small evening walks can help.


Provided that the woman does not suffer from manifestations of allergies, you can practice aromatherapy by choosing a special composition of aromatic oils. It is recommended to use oil of lavender, basil, sage, geranium, rose, juniper, bergamot. It is worth starting to take baths with aromatic oils two weeks before menstruation.

Physical exercise

Any reasonable loads positively affect the body - running, dancing, yoga, body flex, etc. If you train fully and regularly, the body rises endorphins. And this allows you to overcome depression and insomnia, reduce the severity of physical symptoms.

Vitamins and Minerals

To reduce the severity of symptoms, magnesium should be taken two weeks before menstruation. vitamin b6. It is also recommended to drinkvitamins E and BUT. This will help reduce the severity of a number of symptoms: palpitations, insomnia, anxiety, fatigue, irritability.


It is important to introduce as many vegetables and fruits as possible, as well as foods containing calcium and fiber, into the diet. It is worth reducing the amount of coffee, cola, chocolate consumed, as caffeine provokes anxiety and mood swings. It is important to reduce the amount of fat in the diet.

It is also not recommended to eat beef, which may contain artificial estrogens. You should drink herbal teas, lemon and carrot juices. It is better to exclude or limit alcohol, since under its influence the reserves of minerals and vitamins are depleted, and the liver utilizes hormones worse.

Often women are interested in why you want salty before menstruation. The fact is that fluctuations in appetite are normal during PMS, and sometimes you just need to "satisfy the requirements" of the body in order to feel better.


You need to try to avoid stressful situations, not to overwork and think positively. To do this, it is recommended to practice yoga, meditation.

Regular sex

Sex also has a beneficial effect on the state of health - it helps to sleep better, overcome stress, cope with bad emotions, strengthen immunity and increase the content of endorphins. In addition, in the period before menstruation, a woman often increases libido, which contributes to an active sex life.

Medicinal herbs

With the help of herbal teas, you can significantly alleviate the condition with PMS. The main thing is to choose the right herbs. Tea can be made from St. John's wort, primrose, as well as other herbs that the doctor will recommend.


Thus, premenstrual syndrome is a serious condition that sometimes becomes a barrier for a woman to have a full life and working capacity. According to studies, the most common symptoms of PMS are manifested in residents of large cities and women who engage in mental work.

However, with the help of specialists, as well as practicing proper nutrition, regular exercise, taking vitamins and minerals, this condition can be significantly alleviated.

Watch the video: Treat Your PMS (February 2020).

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