Cervical cyst (other names - cervical retention cysts, also cervical cysts) is a formation that is an enlarged and closed gland in the cervix in which the secret accumulates. Initially, an inflammatory process develops, which progresses in the vaginal part or in the cervical canal. Its consequence is inflammation of the excretory ducts of the glands located in the cervix. These ducts, which normally produce mucus, gradually become clogged. Iron is filled with mucus, its volume increases. Such a pathology can be detected during the examination: sometimes it can also be detected by visual examination, in other cases, pelvic ultrasound and coloscopy are prescribed. According to statistics, a cervical cyst is diagnosed in 10-20% of women.
Features of cervical cysts
The cervix in a woman has the shape of a cylinder. At its center is the entrance to the cervical canal of the cervix. The inner coating of the channel consists of a cylindrical single-layer epithelium with a large number of glands. They produce a special secret. The outer covering of the cervix forms a stratified squamous epithelium without glands. Near the entrance to the cervical canal is the so-called transformation zone between two different types of epithelium. It is in this zone that pre-cancerous and cancerous diseases are predominantly formed.
The main reason why a woman has a cyst on the cervix is the manifestation of the inflammatory process. Inflammation in the cervical canal and on the cervix appears as a consequence of injuries and infections that occur with the introduction of an intrauterine device, childbirth, abortionwhen conducting instrumental examinations.
Nabotov cysts of the cervix are not dangerous from the point of view of malignancy. The presence of cervical cysts also does not provoke hormonal imbalance and does not affect the appearance of cysts in the ovaries. A woman who has been diagnosed with a cyst of the cervix does not note the negative impact of such an education on bearing of pregnancy, menstrual cycle.
However, in some cases, in such a cyst, bacteria and viruses accumulate and multiply. As a result, a woman notes constant relapses of inflammatory processes, both of the cervix and other organs - the fallopian tubes, ovaries, the mucous membrane of the uterus, and the vagina. Constantly recurring inflammatory processes often cause development ectopic pregnancyas well as female infertility.
Types of cervical cysts
Cysts in the cervix are divided by doctors into solitary and multiple. Using the term "cysts", doctors mean precisely multiple cysts. Such formations are the result of arbitrary cure ectopia of the cervix. Consequently, the appearance of multiple cysts is a consequence of ectopia, in the process of which there is a blockage of the excretory ducts of the glands in the cervix. In a thin capsule inside, a thick mucous secret is collected.
Endometrioid formuterine cysts has a characteristic bluish color, there are areas on it that bleed. The size of such sites increases immediately before menstruation. This form of cyst develops after endometrial tissue moves to a previously injured surface. In such a cyst, hemorrhagic contents are present inside.
Symptoms of cervical cysts
Pronounced symptoms of cervical cysts in women do not appear: the presence of such a formation does not provoke bloody discharge or monthly cycle disorders.
Diagnosis of cervical cysts
The doctor discovers a cervical cyst during a gynecological examination, sometimes additional ultrasound or colposcopy is required. If the patient had nabotov cysts of the cervix, then an examination is carried out to detect the presence of infection in the cervix, cervical canal, and in the vagina. If any infection is detected, it is necessary to conduct a bacterioscopic examination of the smear taken from the vagina.
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Treatment of cervical cysts
It is widely believed that a cervical cyst is not particularly dangerous for the general condition of a woman. Some experts define a cyst as a normal state of health that does not provoke complications. Accordingly, the treatment of cervical cysts may not be practiced.
However, most doctors still believe that the cyst is not harmless, since there is a likelihood of development in education purulent infiltrate. Therefore, it is advisable to carry out a surgical operation to remove a cyst. However, in most cases, surgery is carried out only when the operation can be performed as little as possible traumatic. If the cyst is located deep in the cervix, then the operation is not performed, but twice a year a gynecologist should be visited to monitor the dynamics of the development of the disease.
Initially, during the treatment of a cyst with purulent inflammation, the patient is punctured, during which the purulent-inflammatory contents are completely removed. After that, using samples are determined antibioticsto which the pathogen is sensitive. Their course is necessarily assigned to the patient. The process of opening and drainage of the cervical cyst can be carried out throughout the entire menstrual cycle, with the exception of three days before menstruation and immediately the days of menstruation. Such restrictions are practiced in order to reduce the risk of further development. endometriosis cervix. It is preferable to perform the procedure in the first two weeks of the menstrual cycle.
For the treatment of cervical cysts, the radio wave method is also used.
However, most often in the process of treating cervical cysts, laser therapy is used, as well as cauterization using liquid nitrogen (cryotherapy method). The use of cryotherapy allows you to avoid the appearance of scars on the cervix, so this procedure is considered as sparing as possible.
Laser treatment can be somewhat unpleasant for a woman, since the process is somewhat painful. But at the same time, not only tissue removal occurs, but also cauterization of blood vessels, which effectively stops bleeding. Laser cauterization of cervical cysts is recommended for women who have not yet given birth to children, since it helps to minimize complications.
For the treatment of cervical cysts, the patient does not need hospitalization: it is performed on an outpatient basis. After the procedure, a woman can feel pain of a cutting nature in the lower abdomen for several days. After ten days from the time of the procedure, candles are used that activate the healing process. Candles are often used for this purpose. de pantol. A follow-up visit to the doctor must be carried out a month after surgery.
Before starting treatment, a woman must be tested for a vaginal smear for flora and latent infections. In addition to this analysis, no preliminary procedures are required before treatment. If an infection has been detected, then pre-treatment is practiced.
For the treatment of recurrent cervical cysts, homeopathic remedies and physiotherapeutic procedures are also used.
With a cyst in the cervix, a woman does not need to observe special restrictions on nutrition, physical activity, and sexual contacts. It is also allowed swimming in open water, a visit to the sauna and pool.
Prevention of cervical cysts
To prevent the occurrence of this pathology, a woman must undergo regular examinations by a gynecologist and periodically conduct an ultrasound examination. Sometimes, for a more thorough examination, the doctor may prescribe a preventive endoscopic examination of the cervix (its vaginal part). Timely treatment of inflammatory diseases of the genital organs of a woman can significantly reduce the risk of developing cervical cysts.
Cervical Cyst and Pregnancy
If a woman has developed large cysts, the diameter of which is from 1 cm or more, then such formations can cause compression of the cervical canal. Such a pathology sometimes becomes a mechanical factor in infertility. But it should be noted that the cervical cyst is still not the main factor in the manifestation of infertility.
If there is a single cyst in the cervix or multiple formations of this type, bearing a pregnancy in most cases proceeds without complications. This pathology does not affect the course of labor. If a cyst was detected in a woman during pregnancy, then her treatment is carried out only when the young mother completely stops postpartum discharge. The complete cessation of Lochia occurs, as a rule, by the fortieth day after childbirth.
Women who wish to administer an intrauterine device to protect against unwanted conception should know that a cyst in the cervix is a contraindication to this method contraception is not.
List of sources
- Diseases of the cervix. Clinical Lectures / Ed. V.N. Prilepskaya. - Moscow, 1997;
- Kulakov, V.I. Gynecology: national leadership / V.I. Kulakov, G.M. Savelyeva, I.B. Manukhin. - M.: GEOTAR-Media, 2013;
- Diseases of the cervix. Clinic, diagnosis, treatment / T.V. Ovsyannikova, I.O. Makarov, N.A. Sheshukova, I.A. Kulikov. - M .: MEDpress-inform, 2013;
- Kondrikov N.I. Pathology of the uterus. - M., 2008;
- Pathology of the cervix and uterus. Guide for doctors / Kokhanevich E.V. et al. Ed. prof. Ko-khanevich E.V. - Nizhyn: Hydromax, 2009.