The vast majority of diseases of the hematopoietic system occur with anemiaat which there is a decrease in the amount hemoglobin per unit volume of blood, mainly with a simultaneous decrease in the total volume red blood cells (or their numbers).
Anemia is one of the symptoms of various diseases or pathological conditions. Among the large totality of anemia in clinical practice, the most common (up to 85% of cases) are anemia caused by a lack of iron in the body. This condition is a cause of disruption in the synthesis of iron-containing proteins, as a result of which oxygen deficiency develops in the body and inhibition of cellular respiration occurs with the development of dystrophy in the organs and tissues of the body and a violation of their functions.
Other species anemia: vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, folic acid deficiency, hemolytic, sickle cell anemia are less common, but are also accompanied by similar symptoms.
The level of plasma iron is determined by the processes of synthesis and decay of red blood cells. The human body contains an average of 3 to 5 g of iron in a bound form. In the process of hematopoiesis, iron from the blood depot is used. Loss of iron in the body is replenished with iron contained in food. Therefore, the nutritional factor is leading in the development of iron deficiency anemia. However, iron supplied with food is absorbed only by 10-20%, that is, the amount of iron consumed with food should be 5-10 times greater than the daily requirement, which is on average 10 mg / day for men with a loss level of about 1 mg / day and 18 mg / day for women with a loss level of up to 2 mg / day. Loss of iron in urine, feces, sweat, hair and nails.
With insufficient intake of iron from the outside, it is activated iron depot. The high-risk group for anemia includes women of childbearing age, elderly people and children (due to the high need for iron) and all people who are not consuming iron-rich foods (in particular, vegetarians).
The main objectives of clinical nutrition for iron deficiency anemia are:
- Providing the body with physiologically complete nutrition with enough iron for the hematopoiesis process.
- Balance the intake of substances that enhance and inhibit the absorption of iron.
- To balance the food content of heme (contained in animal products, part of hemoglobin) and non-heme (contained in ionic plant products in the form of 2-3 valence iron) iron compounds, taking into account the iron content in the products and the degree of assimilation of iron from them.
- Choose and balance foods with low hemoglobin, providing sufficient calorie intake and optimal protein, fat, carbohydrate content in food.
Products of animal origin with a high iron content (in mg / 100 g of product) include:
- calf liver (7.9);
- beef liver (7.1);
- pork liver (22.1);
- chicken liver (17.5);
- oysters (9.2);
- beef kidneys (10.0);
- blood sausage (6.4);
- liverwurst sausage (5.3);
- various types of meat (2.0-3.6);
- mussels (5.1);
- chicken yolk (6.7);
- beef tongue (4.1).
Plant-based products that are leaders in iron content:
- wheat bran (11.0);
- flax seed (8.2);
- sesame seeds (10.0);
- pistachios (3.7);
- soybeans (9.7);
- oatmeal (4.6);
- buckwheat groats (6.2);
- spinach (2.7);
- peanuts (4,5).
Foods that increase hemoglobin in the blood should be contained in every meal.
Diet at low hemoglobin based on diet Table number 11 (high protein option). The energy value of the diet is 3200-3400 Kcal (120 g of protein, 60% of which are animal proteins; fats - 90-100 g when included at least 25% vegetable fats, carbohydrates -450 g; sodium chloride content - 12-15 g free fluid - 1.5 -2.0 liters).
To increase hemoglobin, the following are introduced into the diet:
- various meat offal, fish products (herring, balyks, caviar);
- canned food - sprats, sardines, etc .;
- non-fish seafood;
- vegetable oil and butter;
- a full range of dairy products;
- chicken eggs;
- various cereals;
- vegetables fruits;
Particular attention is paid to the digestibility of iron. To improve the absorption of iron by the body, provide a sufficient amount in the diet Vitamin C and copper. Adding citrus juice, rosehip broth, fruits and berries without pulp, compote with citric acid or ascorbic acid (25-50 mg) increases the absorption of iron, since ascorbic acid is actively involved in the absorption of iron. The addition of juice from citrus fruits increases the digestibility of iron from bread, cereals, eggs.
Copper-rich foods include apricots, cherries, dried figs, kelp, seaweed, green vegetables. In order to improve the digestibility of iron in foods (milk, fruit juices, cereals, rice, salt, bread, sugar) add oxide iron and sour sulfate, iron glycerophosphate and gluconate.
Iron absorption inhibits strong tea and foods rich in tannins. Chocolate, egg yolk, cocoa, as well as foods rich in iron absorption deteriorate. vitamin D (dairy products), which in the diet should be limited. To reduce their negative effects, it is recommended to use them separately from other products.
Almost all types of culinary processing of products are allowed (baking, stewing, steaming), except for frying, since this process produces oxidation products that negatively affect the body, and also uses a lot of fat, which is contraindicated in anemia. The food temperature is standard (15-60 degrees Celsius).
At B12 deficiency anemia main sources are included in the diet Vitamin B12 (in 100 mg of product): beef liver - 60 mcg; chicken liver - 16 mcg; pork liver - 30 mcg; beef - 2.6 mcg; mackerel - 12 mcg; rabbit meat - 4.3 mcg; pork - 2 mcg; cod - 1.6 mcg; carp - 1.5 mcg; chicken egg - 0.5 mcg.
At folic acid deficiency anemia (disadvantage vitamin b9) the diet includes foods containing a lot of folic acid, both animal and vegetable origin: liver, pork, beef, poultry, fish, lamb, eggs, milk and dairy products, legumes, wheat yeast and seedlings, buckwheat and oat cereals, bran, cereals, green leafy vegetables, nuts, yeast, apricots, pumpkin, mushrooms, beets, bananas, melon, dates, bread.
- Iron-deficiency anemia;
- vitamin B12 deficiency anemia;
- folic acid deficiency anemia.
Food with low hemoglobin is based on the inclusion in the diet of products containing the maximum amount of iron: internal organs and offal (beef liver and chicken, chicken stomachs and hearts, beef tongue), red meat (beef), meat products (ham, sausage, sausages), fish and fish products (caviar, salmon, sprats, sardines), seafood (mussels, shrimps, squids), butter and vegetable oil.
From dairy products it is useful to include cheeses and cottage cheese, dairy products in the diet. Soups, all first courses are prepared on a strong meat or fish broth. Almost all types of cereals, legumes and pasta can be used to prepare a side dish with a low iron content.
It is indicated to include in the diet in sufficient quantities wheat / rye bread, flour products (muffin, baked pasties, biscuits). All vegetables and fruits are allowed in any culinary processing, it is especially important to include fruits and vegetables with a high content in the diet ascorbic acid (citrus fruits, wild rose, chokeberry, blackcurrant). In the diet should be present various dried fruits - dried apricots, raisins, prunes, figs; seeds and nuts - almonds, pistachios, peanuts, cashews, walnuts, sunflower seeds, pumpkins.
Vegetable and leafy salads are very useful. Clinical nutrition involves the inclusion in the diet of sweet foods and dishes from them (honey, jams, preserves). Honey is especially useful. Contained in it fructose promotes the absorption of iron in the intestine. It is preferable to use dark varieties of honey, as they contain more copper, iron and manganese. With low acidity, honey is used immediately before meals, and with increased acidity - 1.5 hours before a meal. In the absence of contraindications, it is allowed to eat up to 50 g of honey per day. Of the drinks, it is necessary to introduce into the diet a decoction of wheat bran and wild rose, vegetable and fruit juices, especially beetroot juice.
Approved Product Table
|Proteins, g||Fats, g||Carbohydrates, g||Calories, kcal|
Vegetables and greens
Nuts and dried fruits
Cereals and cereals
|buckwheat groats (kernel)||12,6||3,3||62,1||313|
|whole grain bread||10,1||2,3||57,1||295|
Raw materials and seasonings
|cream 15% (low fat)||2,3||15,0||3,6||161|
|sour cream 15% (low fat)||2,6||15,0||3,0||158|
Cheeses and cottage cheese
Fish and seafood
|cod (liver in oil)||4,2||65,7||1,2||613|
Oils and Fats
|* data are per 100 g of product|
Fully or partially restricted products
Very fatty varieties of meat, fish and poultry, culinary, beef and mutton fat, spices, fatty and very spicy sauces, pastries and cakes with a high content of cream are excluded from the diet.
Foods with a high calcium content (milk and dairy products, parsley), tannin and caffeine (coffee, strong tea, chocolate, Coca-Cola) are limited, since they impede the absorption of iron.
Alcohol intake during iron deficiency anemia is completely ruled out, since ethyl alcohol negatively affects both the liver and disrupts the absorption of iron and flavocins.
Prohibited Products Table
|Proteins, g||Fats, g||Carbohydrates, g||Calories, kcal|
|sour cream 30%||2,4||30,0||3,1||294|
|melted beef fat||0,0||99,7||0,0||897|
|melted pork fat||0,0||99,6||0,0||896|
|dessert white wine 16%||0,5||0,0||16,0||153|
|dry red wine||0,2||0,0||0,3||68|
|* data are per 100 g of product|
Menu (Power Mode)
Diet menu Backgrounds 11 is relatively simple since almost all products are allowed. Five meals a day, in small portions.
Advantages and disadvantages
At low hemoglobin there is a lack of oxygen, so it is recommended to take frequent walks in the fresh air. Ventilate the room as often as possible, practice breathing exercises.
Often asked the question "How to increase hemoglobin for a vegetarian?"
A really definite problem exists, especially in those cases when a person practices strict vegetarianism. Since the absorption of iron in the intestine is largely determined by the nature of the food and the caloric content of the daily diet, many vegetarians develop iron deficiency over time, since heme iron is absent in food and non-heme iron in cereals and vegetables has an extremely low digestibility. In addition, a higher fiber content in vegetarian foods inhibits iron absorption. Therefore, if in your diet there are no animal blood-forming food products, you need to be especially attentive to your diet, in order to adequately provide your body with iron.
It can be recommended to include in the diet a sufficient amount of foods rich in ascorbic acid, which significantly increases the absorption of iron. In order to prevent the development of anemia, iron-containing medications should be taken periodically, for example, Ferro Folgammcontaining a balanced combination of anhydrous iron sulfate, folic acid, cyanocobalamin and ascorbic acid.
Feedback and Results
- "... I periodically sit on this diet, because because of the plentiful monthly periods, the hemoglobin index is low. As a rule, after a month of dietary intake and iron supplementation, everything normalizes.";
- "... After a long stay on a mono-diet and the development of anemia, the doctor prescribed a therapeutic diet and said that although dietary nutrition for anemia is an important stage of treatment, he is not able to independently fill the iron deficiency in the body. Therefore, he prescribed tablets of iron".
Diet includes readily available foods. The cost of the products was calculated at average market prices and, according to our estimates, ranges from 2500 to 3000 rubles per week.