Euthanasia the practice of ending a human life due to an incurable disease and unbearable suffering arising from it is called; euthanasia can also be considered in terms of satisfying the patient’s demands to end his life in order to end the suffering without medical indications in a minimally painful or painless form.
Today, this term can be used in various senses, including: caring for the dying, accelerating the onset of death of those who experience severe suffering, giving the patient the opportunity to die.
In the theory of euthanasia, two types are distinguished. Active euthanasia implies the introduction of medications to the dying, which leads to a painless and quick death. In the USA, for example, this practice is widespread when a person in a legally valid form and in advance can express their will in the event of an irreversible coma. In addition, this form refers to suicide with the help of doctors, which consists in the fact of providing the patient with drugs that reduce life, at his request. TO passive form of euthanasia includes intentional termination maintenance therapy patient, for example, turning off the artificial respiration apparatus.
Also distinguish involuntary and voluntary euthanasia. The latter type includes euthanasia with the prior consent of the patient, or at his preliminary request. Involuntary euthanasia involves the actions of a relative patient who is in an unconscious state. It is carried out on the basis of the decision of guardians, relatives and so on.
For the first time this term was used back in the XI century, when it was used to mean "easy death." In a number of European countries, euthanasia was widespread even before the outbreak of World War II. However, as a result of the actions of the Nazis and various killing programs, the ideas of euthanasia were discredited for a long time. One of the famous experts in favor of euthanasia was Z. Freud. He even committed euthanasia back in 1939 at his home in London due to cancer sky with the help of Dr. Schur. Prior to that, he survived 19 unsuccessful operations, which at that time were carried out under local anesthesia.
Today, euthanasia is part of the medical practice of terminating the lives of many countries, which was influenced by several factors. On the one hand, this is progress in the field of medicine, which has significantly reduced mortality. On the other hand, this is an ever-changing shift in moral priorities and values in modern society, in the center of which are human rights. A little more than half of the Russian doctors surveyed answered the question of the permissibility of euthanasia that they had never thought about this issue. The remaining opinions were almost completely divided between the adherents and opponents of this approach.
Among the arguments for euthanasia are the following: life is regarded as a blessing only if pleasures are higher than suffering and positive emotions exceed negative ones; maintaining a human life in vegetative state requires large financial investments; life is good only when it has a human form.
As regards the arguments against, among them: the human right to suicidelife with any form, even full of suffering, is always above the lack of life; life is the highest good; people in a vegetative state cannot be denied the opportunity to live.
The Netherlands is a pioneer in resolving this approach. In the 90s of the last century, the Supreme Court recognized the possibility of voluntary euthanasia. After that, euthanasia was legalized in Belgium, which every year helped more and more patients lose their lives, for example, in 2004, 1.5 times more patients resorted to it than in 2003.
In Russia, any form of euthanasia, both active and passive, is recognized as a crime and is classified as intentional homicide, which entails the corresponding punishment.
Today, in many countries, socio-political activities are being conducted that are aimed at convincing the public of the need to legalize euthanasia. Proponents of this method rely on the provisions on humanity, opponents - on assistance in suicide. In Australia, even such persuasive activities are punishable for promoting suicide, assisting in suicide, and committing suicide.
Once in a clinic in Zurich, a healthy citizen was euthanized. She motivated her request by wanting to leave with her husband, who was mortally ill.