In the modern world, the term "homosexuality"means attracting to each other persons of the same sex, self-awareness as such a person, as well as conducting homosexual practice (i.e., sexual contact with a person of the same gender). If we consider this concept in a slightly narrower concept, then along with hetero- and bisexuality it can be interpreted as one of the types human sexuality.
Only since 1999 in Russia homosexuality has ceased to be considered sexual deviation, i.e. deviation. In the post-Soviet space, this term, according to experts, is mostly negative, while in the West it is mundane, and more recently, homosexuality was considered sexual deviation, that is, a deviation from normal behavior.
Legal literature distinguishes between such concepts as homosexuality in the broad sense of the word, that is, attraction, and the commission of specific homosexual acts, that is, sexual intercourse -sodomy.
But homosexuality is not as simple as it might seem at first glance. Scientists are still speculating on why a person "loses" his normal, nature-based orientation, and becomes attracted to his own sex. The question of whether such behavior is innate or acquired also remains open. Sociologist Kinsey, for example, decided to investigate homosexuality on the basis of a 7-point scale, on the basis of which not only three types of sexuality can be distinguished, but also intermediate ones.
A similar opinion was shared by a well-known psychologist. Sigmund Freud, who claimed that homosexuality is present to some extent in every person, it’s just that in some people it is developed more, and in someone less.
Psychiatrist Klein highlighted autonomous homosexuality parameters: predominant gender in sexual fantasies, attraction, gender of real partners, emotional and social preferences, lifestyle, self-identification. Based on these, a lattice of sexuality is compiled, which determines the orientation of a person.
Thus, a great many studies of this phenomenon took place, and each specialist considered the problem in his own way.
The scientific literature seeks to use more specific concepts: homosexual orientation, behavior, assessment of homosexuality on the Kinsey scale, etc. This approach makes it possible to more accurately describe the occurring phenomena.
The public’s attitude to the phenomenon of homosexuality is still ambiguous: somewhere gay marriage is permitted (for example, in some American states), and somewhere due to connection with the same gender they face serious punishment (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, etc. .) As a study based on a survey of people showed, predominantly underdeveloped and developing countries oppose homosexuality. Eastern Europe, Africa, the Middle East more than others expressed their unwillingness to live among homosexuals.
Causes of occurrence
There is still no consensus on the exact cause of homosexuality: many doctors believe that certain areas are to blame for this phenomenon brain, someone blames genes, and someone sees the reason for the hidden seduction of the child by adults, as well as relations with parents in childhood, especially with regard to the male manifestation of homosexuality. According to experts, such behavior in a person is formed during the first five years of life, and homosexuals themselves in almost all cases claim that they have always felt this way.
Studying the influence of factors from childhood did not give scientists positive results. When they turned their attention to same-sex relationships in the ancient world, it turned out that there were many examples when there were connections between young boys and adult men. Nevertheless, the first, upon reaching puberty, became full-fledged men with a heterosexual orientation and had offspring. Thus, this theory finds both adherents and opponents. Therefore, many experts began to look for causes in the biological component of the problem.
Many scholars agree that it is impossible to choose one’s own sexual orientation or to influence it in any way. Homosexuality, like other types of sexuality, is a biological feature of the body. To date, numerous studies are conducted on this phenomenon.
Fauna and homosexuality
The fact that this problem is not a deviation was accepted as a fact by almost all experts. Take at least the animal kingdom, where same-sex relationships are also not uncommon. Japanese macaques served as a good object of research in this area. Their sexual behavior is bisexual, and they chose an object for themselves, regardless of whether there were many males or females in the group. Among humanoid orangutans, this phenomenon is also not uncommon.
The search for the gene responsible for homosexuality has been going on since 1980, but is still unsuccessful. To determine whether a factor is acquired or innate, the material of two relatives is often used, in this case identical twins. The result was a frequent presence of homosexuality in men who have older brothers. Also, in the case when one of the twin brothers had such manifestations, the second they were noted in a large number of cases, even when they were brought up separately.
Thus, it cannot be said with certainty that only genes are the cause of same-sex attraction, but this reason also cannot be ruled out.
For a long time there was a theory that influence androgen on the human brain determines his sexual desire. At the moment, this hypothesis is not taken seriously by many doctors, but its authors noted a significant difference in this. hormone people of different sexual orientations.
Maternal blood hormone levels during pregnancy It is also considered a possible factor affecting the orientation of the unborn child. For example, stress can cause a surge testosteronethat can negatively affect if a woman is waiting for her daughter.
Given the fact that a person’s sexuality is controlled by him nervous system, many scientists agreed that the cause of this behavior should be sought in the human brain. Gays have been found to have a backsidehypothalamus 2 times less than that of heterosexual men, and its volume is equal to female. Perhaps this is a coincidence, or perhaps a sure sign.
According to the assumptions of Russian psychiatrists, the state of the right hemisphere of the homosexual brain has a dysfunction that is similar to a deficit, which is associated with the insufficiency of some functions of the right hand, worse orientation in space, etc. However, studies conducted in the USA showed an inverse relationship: according to their results, it was found that homosexuals adopt a number of disciplines better than people with a heterosexual orientation.
Numerous psychological studies have revealed that personality characteristics are different among heterosexuals and homosexuals. However, a number of experiments showed that mental disorders in no way connected with a person’s sexual orientation. But Dutch scientists have come to the conclusion that sexual minorities are at the so-called risk group associated with such diseases.
Despite the fact that most scholars from around the world are of the opinion that there is no need for a change in orientation, or it is impossible to do this at all, many countries still have a homosexual punishment. In most cases, such a rejection of the recognition of normality is due to religious motives, or to the excessive conservatism of the nation. Disputes between scientists who are in favor and against the correction of this type of sexuality are still ongoing.