Baldness or rather alopecia - This is a disease that is characterized by pathological hair loss of varying degrees of intensity, leading to partial or complete hair loss.
This pathology arises for a variety of reasons, some of which are unclear, due to little knowledge. There is no single classification of alopecia. Alopecia is currently divided into total (complete absence of hairline), diffuse (severe baldness) and focal (baldness occurs in some limited areas).
Also, dermatology distinguishes the disease by origin and clinical features:
Each of them, in turn, is divided into several types.
Congenital alopecia. This type of alopecia (alopecia congenita) is characterized by a partial or complete absence of hair follicles, which is due, presumably, to genetic abnormalities and refers to ectomesodermal dysplasia. Congenital alopecia can be an independent disease, and part of the general pathology. The disease is caused by a violation of the synthesis of certain amino acids and is quite rare.
Alopecia is seborrheic. The cause of seborrheic alopecia is a complication of seborrhea associated with disruption of the sebaceous glands. Long-term qualitative and quantitative changes in secreted sebum lead to the appearance of dandruff and seborrhea, and as a result of hair loss. Seborrheic alopecia occurs in approximately 25% of adolescents during puberty and reaches a peak by 23-27 years.
Symptoms of seborrheic alopecia are pain, dandruff, itching of the scalp. Hair becomes oily in appearance and to the touch, sticks together in messy locks. The scalp and hair roots are covered with greasy scales of yellowish or grayish color. The life of the hair is gradually reduced, they begin to fall out. There is a violation of the process of physiological hair changes, new hair is gradually replaced by fluffy. The hairline begins to thin or foci of bald spots appear.
Often by the age of 30, the hormonal background is normalized and the functioning of the sebaceous glands is restored. Treatment of alopecia of the seborrheic type should be started as early as possible, from a trip to a specialist trichologist or dermatologist, a hair disease is diagnosed in a trichological office. Self-medication can lead to irreversible hair loss.
The treatment of alopecia in this case, first things first, begins with the fight against seborrhea. The treatment complex consists of two stages. The general strengthening stage involves correction of the diet and its observance, improvement of the state of the body and the immune system by taking a vitamin course, observing the regimen of the day and rest, because the psychological state and immunity of the patient greatly affect the speed of recovery. Seborrheic alopecia is treated with special ointments, shampoos, masks that contain complexes of active elements that stop inflammatory processes and stimulate hair growth.
Symptomatic alopecia (diffuse). The causes of symptomatic alopecia are a complication of the course of severe general diseases: infections, endocrinopathy and many others, as well as the result of poisoning, radiation exposure or prolonged cytostatic therapy. Under the toxic or autoimmune effect on the hair papillae, their growth stops. The disease is total, diffuse or focal in nature. After the cessation of chemical exposure, hair growth is usually restored.
Separate groups of certain diseases that lead to cicatricial alopecia are distinguished:
- viral diseases for example shingles or chicken pox;
- bacterial diseases (syphilis, carbuncle, boil, tuberculosis and etc.);
- fungal (favus, microsporiainfiltrative suppurative trichophytosis);
- connective tissue disease (systemic lupus erythematosusscleroderma);
- hereditary disorders and developmental defects, such as skin aplasia, epidermal nevus, hematrophy of the face, hematomas of hair follicles, etc .;
- physical damage (mechanical injury, thermal or radiation exposure);
- some types of neoplasms (squamous cell carcinoma, syringoma, etc.);
- protozoal (leishmaniasis);
- dermatoses of various origins (lipoid necrobiosis, Brock's pseudopelada, sarcoidosis, Little-Lassuer syndrome, etc.).
Cicatricial alopecia is treated only by surgery, by hair transplantation. This operation is well mastered, less traumatic, and if the scar area is small, it gives a quick effect.
Symptomatic alopecia in other species is most often treatable and, the sooner the specialist finds out the cause of baldness and proceeds to treatment, the higher the positive prognosis.
Alopecia areata. Most often, alopecia areata affects children and young people of both sexes up to 25 years old. The etiology of the disease is not fully understood. According to the assumptions, head injuries, endocrine diseases or neuro-trophic disorders with an autoimmune component play an important role in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. Hair falls out in the form of foci of round or oval shape of various sizes, hair follicles are reduced in size. By clinical forms, there are subspecies of alopecia areata:
- total - there is a complete absence of hair on the scalp;
- subtotal - lack of hair on the scalp more than 40%;
- local - one or several clear, rounded foci of alopecia are determined;
- diffuse - there is a noticeable thinning of hair on the scalp;
- offiasis - foci of alopecia affect the entire marginal zone of hair growth on the head, nape or frontotemporal region;
- universal - lack of hair on the scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows, Complete or partial loss of vellus hair on the body.
The disease proceeds unpredictably, the foci suddenly appear and also suddenly, after 3-6 months, they can disappear. Sometimes the disease becomes chronic, old foci overgrow, but new ones appear.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of the clinical picture and characteristic signs. Clinical and laboratory tests are recommended: general and blood chemistry, hair microscopy, determination of cortisol levels in the blood, CSF, skull X-ray, REG, hormonal blood count.
Alopecia areata is recognized as a multi-cause disease. The treatment of alopecia of this type complicates the difficulty of identifying the main cause of the mechanism of the development of the disease, and therefore, there are problems in its effectiveness.
Alopecia is premature. The mechanism of androgenetic alopecia is the most studied. The development of the disease is associated with the uncharacteristic effect of androgen hormones, due to hereditary factors. Alopecia is premature or androgenic, the most common type of baldness, is observed in men and, sometimes, in women. In men, the onset of the disease manifests itself during puberty and is finally formed by the age of 30. In 60% of cases, the developed clinical picture is observed in 40-50 years. Women get sick much later, in almost half the cases, the onset of the disease occurs in 60-70 years and is expressed not by complete baldness, but by more or less thinning of the hair.
Symptoms of alopecia are premature, are the replacement of long hair with cannons. Hair loss begins in the frontal and parietal region, then the process covers other parts of the head. As a result, hair remains only along the edges of the scalp.
The skin on the hairless areas is thinning, becoming more smooth and shiny. Holes of hair follicles become invisible. In the early stages of premature alopecia, focal perivascular basophilic degeneration of the connective tissue vagina of the hair is histologically isolated. Over the course of several hair-change cycles, affected follicles progressively decrease. Below the shriveled follicle, at first you can see the sclerotized remnants of the connective tissue vagina, which disappear with time.
Most often, it is not possible to achieve restoration of the hairline, but intensive systematic restorative treatment helps to significantly slow down the process of baldness.
The main condition for the successful treatment of alopecia of all types is the elimination of the adverse psychological background, disorders of the digestive tract, kidneys and liver, nervous and endocrine systems, foci of chronic infection, helminthic invasion and other factors contributing to the development of the disease.
- psychotropic and nootropic drugs (Asafen, Nootropil, Sibazon),
- immunocorrective drugs (Decaris, Methyluracil, Taktivin),
- vitamins (A, E, multivitamins containing trace elements), Fitin, Biotin.
Alopecia areata, in addition to the listed drugs, requires the appointment of angioprotectors (doxium) and drugs that improve microcirculation (trental) Sometimes, in severe cases, it is possible to use corticosteroid therapy in the form of chipping foci or inside. However, there is no guarantee against relapse.
Of the physiotherapeutic methods in the treatment of alopecia are used Darsonval currents, and in severe cases, it is advisable to combine UV rays with the use of photosensitizers (ammifurin, beroxane) or conduct photochemotherapy.
Reflexotherapy gives a positive effect, in particular, laser reflexology.
From external means, the use of irritating alcohol rubbing is effective (red pepper tinctures, naphthalan oil extract), corticosteroid creams, drug Regeinwhich includes minoxidil. Spend a course of treatment of alopecia rubbing pilastin or silocast in the lesion foci. The course consists of 6 days, the interval between courses is 1.5 months.
It is important to strictly follow a diet. Mandatory inclusion in the diet of fresh vegetables (especially cabbage and carrots); fruits (apricots, dried apricots, apples). As well as seaweed and products containing large amounts of gelatin (jelly, jellied dishes, jelly). It is necessary to completely exclude alcohol, coffee, smoked meats, pickles, seasonings, marinades, extractives from the diet, and also limit the intake of fats and carbohydrates.